Venkat Mohan, MD
Most people never give a thought to the health of their gallbladder. The pear-shaped organ does have an important job, collecting and storing bile -- the fluid that helps the body digest fats. But unlike the heart, liver, and kidneys, the gallbladder isn't necessary to keep the body healthy and functioning. Even when it isn't working as well as it should and gallstones develop, most people are unaware that there is a problem.
Yet in a small percentage of people, gallstones can trigger a variety of symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. When gallstone symptoms are frequent, recurrent, and especially uncomfortable, the typical treatment is surgery to remove the gallbladder.
"The majority of people with gallstones never develop symptoms their whole lives," says John Martin, MD, associate professor of medicine and surgery, and director of endoscopy at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. "Once you start to develop symptoms, you're going to need to have the gallbladder taken out."
Although diet doesn't directly cause gallbladder problems -- and it won't cure them -- watching what you eat and keeping a healthy weight might help you prevent gallstones from forming and avoid some discomfort if you do develop gallstones.
A number of risk factors contribute to the formation of gallstones, including a family history of gallstones and gender. Women are twice as likely as men to develop them. Body weight is also a factor; the risk of gallstones is higher in people who are overweight and obese.
Diets that are high in fat and cholesterol and low in fiber appear to play a role. "There's a lot of things you can't change in that list, but you can certainly influence your diet," says F. Taylor Wootton III, MD, clinical counselor, associate professor of internal medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School, and a member of the American Gastroenterological Association governing board.
If you're overweight, try to lose the extra weight; but do it gradually. There is a link between quick weight loss and gallstone formation. Crash or "yo-yo" diets can cause the liver to release more cholesterol into the bile, disrupting the normal balance of cholesterol and bile salts. That extra cholesterol can form into crystals, leading to gallstones, Wootton says.
Whether or not you are at risk for gallstones, it's always a good idea to keep your body at a healthy weight and eat a diet that is low in fat and cholesterol, moderate in calories, and high in fiber.
All of the following are healthy foods for your gallbladder, as well as the rest of your body:
Certain foods have been studied for their potential to prevent gallbladder problems or reduce symptoms. For example, some research has indicated that drinking caffeinated coffee lowers the risk of gallstones in both men and women. Drinking moderate amounts of alcohol has also been linked to a reduced incidence of gallstones. In one study, women who ate at least one serving of peanuts a day had a 20% lower chance of having their gallbladder removed compared to women who rarely ate peanuts or peanut butter.
However, keep in mind the evidence is far too preliminary at this time to recommend any of these foods solely for the purpose of preventing gallbladder problems.
Researchers say many gallbladder symptoms stem from the modern Western diet, which is high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats. "If you're having symptoms from gallstones, it's because as your gallbladder tries to squeeze, some of the gallstone is blocking the outflow of bile that is stored in your gallbladder," Martin says. "You're squeezing against a closed door, and that's why it hurts. If you eat fatty foods, that makes it squeeze more."
Changing your diet won't get rid of gallstones that are already there, but eating a healthy, balanced variety of nutrients and limiting the amount of saturated fats and cholesterol-heavy foods you eat may help ease your symptoms.
Try to avoid or limit these high-fat foods in your diet:
Also steer clear of very low-calorie diets. If you are overweight, aim for a gradual weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week by sticking to a healthy, well-balanced diet and getting regular exercise. Always diet under your doctor's supervision.
If you continue to have symptoms, see your doctor. You may need surgery to have your gallbladder removed.
SOURCES:John Martin, MD, associate professor of medicine and surgery and director of endoscopy, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.F. Taylor Wootton III, MD, clinical counselor, associate professor of internal medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School; member, American Gastroenterological Association governing board.Leitzmann, M.F. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003; vol 78: pp 339-347.Cuevas, A. American College of Nutrition, 2004; vol 23: pp 187-196.Giovannucci, E.L. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2004; vol 80: pp 76-81.Rakel, D. Integrative Medicine. 2nd ed., Saunders Elsevier, 2007.Feldman M, Friedman L.S., Brandt L.J. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal & Liver Disease, 8th ed., Saunders Elsevier, 2006.
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